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26
January
2022

Intensification of technological processes for processing waste of citrus productions

Bejanidze I.1
Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor
Pogrebennik V.2
Doctor of Technical Sciences Professor,
Kharebava T.1
Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Assistant – Professor,
Didmanidze N.1
Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Senior Lecturer,
Nakashidze N.1
Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant – Professor
1Batumi State University named after Shota Rustaveli,
2 National University “Lviv Polytechnic
Еcology section

Intensification of technological processes for processing waste of citrus productions
In terms of technical equipment, the cannery in Kobuleti (Georgia) by Kartuli Produkti meets European standards; it is fully equipped with equipment from FENCO (Italy). The productivity is quite high: 20-25 tons of fresh fruits per hour, the yield of natural juice is 42-45%, concentrated 6-8%.
However, as a result of the production of juices, there remains a large amount of production wastes with a moisture content of 25-35%, the volume of which significantly exceeds the volume of juice obtained and which contain such valuable components as essential oils, dietary fibers (protopectin, lignin, cellulose, etc.) , soluble pectin and vitamin P. On the other hand, these wastes are dumped into rivers, or rot on the soil and, accordingly, the ecological balance of the environment is disturbed.
Essential oils are contained in the peripheral layer of the peel of the fruit, in the so-called ether-bearing sacs, in the amount of 1.5-4% of the mass of the fruit. At the plant, their removal is carried out on an expensive installation, the productivity of which is significantly lower than the calculated one (1-1.5% of the fruit weight). Thus, during the harvest season, 1200 tons of citrus fruits were processed at the plant and 150 liters were obtained. mandarin essential oil (instead of 10-12 tons), which confirms the inefficiency of the installation.
To solve this problem, at the Institute of Membrane Technology, an experimental installation was developed and created to remove the ether-bearing layer from citrus fruits with adjustable productivity, hydroacidic irrigation, operating in the reverse gradient mode. The installation ensures complete removal of the ethereal layer (flavedo) and, accordingly, the maximum extraction of the essential oil.
Extracts contain large amounts of pectin (5-12%) and vitamin P (0.5-2%). In order to intensify the mass transfer during the extraction of pectin substances and vitamin P (hesperidin), it is necessary to carry out preliminary processing of the extraction.
To achieve this goal, we have proposed a universal version of a tubular electroplasmolyzer with a wide range of functional parameters: the shape and speed of rotation of the counter rollers and a voltage regulator. The special design of the working profile of the electroplasmolyzer provides electrical treatment of the passing layer of extractions in full volume, which achieves the maximum effect of damage to the cytoplasmic membranes of cells and preparation of the extractions for the subsequent extraction process.
The implementation of our proposed developments will achieve a waste-free complex processing of citrus fruits, which will increase the profitability of production and give the plant additional profit.
References:
1. Bejanidze I., Kharebava T., Kontselidze Z. Dietary fiber – multifunctional food ingredients RS Global Sp. z O.O.,Scientific Educational Center Warsaw, Poland. Science Review 1(8), January 2018 Vol.2, p. 30-34.
2. Method of pectin extraction from plant raw materials. 2012. P6038 National Center оf Georgian Intellectual Property.
3. Bejanidze I., Kharebava T. An efficient method for allocation of natural polymers from plant raw. 4 th Intern. Conf. on polymer& Advanced Materials. Collection of works. Batumi, Georgia, July1-4, 2015, p.17.